Random Number Generator

Use the Random Number Generator to create a list of random numbers, based on your specifications. The numbers you generate appear in the Random Number Table.

For help in using the Random Number Generator, read the Frequently-Asked Questions or review the Sample Problems.

  • Enter a value in each of the first three text boxes.
  • Indicate whether duplicate entries are allowed in the table.
  • Click the Calculate button to create a table of random numbers.

Note: The seed value is optional. Leave it blank to generate a new set of numbers. Use it to repeat a previously-generated set of numbers.

How many random numbers?
Minimum value
Maximum value
Allow duplicate entries
Seed (optional)

Random Number Table



1000 Random Numbers
44519 65200 83619 80726 51068 98801 48075 16579 80838 22504 62929 39131 36838 08531 67762 60889 87800 31939 93658 19847 25991 97175 83519 18549 50025 89648 37376 88155 72678 52282 82701 77498 53695 87086 69719 67152 57610 81713 91723 08489 36553 61022 30383 87746 38064 63642 26064 15085 37906 43534 73130 38658 97878 96554 40264 83665 48624 12016 15780 16420 97451 49250 77929 33416 61138 39172 90218 75380 23747 10841 21722 66341 19441 43021 92393 77694 40291 40749 43374 17255 69092 36892 32313 43333 37172 18712 53675 03785 07208 79428 84052 00082 81038 94778 52478 76370 32472 24584 35742 33534 65104 39309 78700 68261 95127 71627 39583 37099 59145 92979 60318 45524 46981 15138 61834 61998 59498 16773 64375 57035 91402 95009 32817 67263 39064 41991 46974 84484 33323 46445 96916 69740 97306 20243 03279 92373 29236 49964 62579 94088 10249 73455 17522 78016 37200 81396 52316 22777 80481 43862 12991 21540 66832 61884 52700 46090 87153 44013 02040 35885 29315 07882 64364 12123 35977 06769 36087 16803 87393 81158 52006 76785 09229 35304 55608 92857 05372 38792 94386 53795 15747 53104 40146 75426 99122 83177 34326 64688 40930 53969 58304 08697 86074 12019 28711 88808 96743 52010 17747 19675 35223 68333 98488 13315 71710 31649 15204 68172 17124 90451 78667 83178 80919 97625 86467 96816 53898 62015 68320 51181 16021 24985 56388 81046 69225 61981 80583 27920 95229 09091 88884 79114 38350 14615 92651 31802 13317 15617 36934 82085 38080 39498 95785 39050 91624 30549 92577 63835 96783 01522 45308 33695 28051 10186 36919 31055 44392 60893 10604 57583 47059 31139 90124 73246 62401 23128 25120 60373 49675 40332 61422 12722 33865 89057 36366 49536 63487 05002 99103 54610 93405 04823 55914 40354 92644 62696 40521 36850 77201 11880 09399 05923 67859 71277 62092 80195 72999 96997 86519 27152 96409 58919 29294 38207 70104 42254 91033 42761 12131 74107 46669 47265 09386 75042 90763 99283 25425 35641 07819 76557 33277 18068 67594 01065 73254 82632 45412 78086 35770 39348 67474 60264 69144 24503 81175 36666 12422 02213 50412 46850 53183 90991 75899 19924 10353 15306 40480 38608 42020 82145 79439 28300 78244 82581 75814 71133 78869 18327 80709 45045 16339 53306 58610 87833 83505 90209 57689 86224 26444 72061 05128 89929 02267 08779 27420 50714 61930 28738 95690 86454 58053 55334 96005 70204 77727 08544 24682 44254 00328 31488 08609 59196 80330 41994 50551 37986 55117 09162 99463 65005 77796 54921 45806 00122 75008 80594 41856 17758 29743 18465 47019 70945 89150 08333 98142 80394 97353 99082 04825 48551 53258 75239 69737 98665 93370 08540 33923 38847 99605 34487 47120 51135 32101 53918 63070 05555 87031 59563 59832 99182 79416 87610 85090 20207 50935 94266 26475 36995 02745 57320 06868 12150 53281 02707 04717 41576 21082 56067 99350 18541 32594 19310 41286 22739 54986 72179 47547 34351 53962 98811 21972 73111 76574 39299 00530 62364 59034 66259 21630 18132 59528 86384 21435 63175 16025 67015 54175 66054 29093 87700 37459 05193 69709 16754 22586 57941 12074 12827 89861 14637 91424 51461 68903 17670 86842 76658 83963 25542 29072 77436 24231 01931 33328 89398 39151 29752 57113 21289 58735 50225 83026 06564 38872 26927 26575 79945 31644 34867 68992 78988 80636 74537 15044 70640 41249 10984 75846 02810 26014 37865 76672 80923 74903 66515 89770 69487 50642 40007 92171 18654 59023 72213 48507 15785 94217 11870 18817 62009 09087 31641 91364 73786 10498 42176 40447 09473 79635 31177 09211 20881 17309 27459 17462 29844 14272 90011 94478 29776 46533 22062 36824 12235 95663 10143 91161 18488 94117 88146 62060 16069 95538 26389 44815 00347 70073 45680 83256 21083 24686 56376 52560 33996 48471 22448 67064 77325 82962 50543 13078 73390 17447 04045 06696 55157 09281 42141 76612 17797 29198 83880 71928 95252 31623 97236 94970 61796 49984 13173 59098 58597 17027 64704 71520 45280 10127 50958 41105 76491 21598 26235 11194 03455 54011 14079 17414 00544 40502 46331 70487 16837 90085 27197 64048 52682 57966 22306 07454 61258 40857 72780 83597 75139 97283 34288 31716 57858 92900 41113 55210 80466 70806 95215 54453 23095 46850 80291 84601 01523 29950 00839 38409 18734 67402 46222 54044 41484 15194 79725 47893 01857 33317 52626 72378 23835 06079 43251 98771 74855 87417 21038 25003 42375 71209 35605 08477 35435 86588 30803 23882 11217 18250 83789 46005 26612 51775 69079 57541 14782 43930 47618 81910 86719 17989 80837 41066 57809 84041 69719 38312 99396 84303 18860 66110 15345 63435 25531 38894 43600 63850 93743 50884 82752 46028 73306 58898 43597 33828 23895 90163 25703 84800 04109 75131 18968 85498 85537 05287 30186 71792 91817 15964 34606 74181 62701 94155 52499 88106 43119 11326 50715 69262 97234 81230 69252 53909 47516 42714 72813 04188 38794 67537 27371 78429 27324 93182 01731 26469 94851 80665 94091 09958 87670 97351 83610 47677 80689 24763 06962 85849 66492 91401 59906 93448 69403 30546 23844 82517 84543 63077 17386 53478 41901 05287 72911 65442 95388 01687 38131 31527 36905 82825 02650 39164 35403 48098 49533 95417 00946 73560 31860 97288 73777 44742 74297 27033 38373 14456 99651 72478 62513 85614 80440 72323 61341 19037 15448 86463 86425 66270 31294 91296 39822 27392 08987 00036 13140 33830 35499 08025 51600 56171 80317 63048 43098 36975 97012 60643 32269 48586 49800 64416 59550 75949 65101 51349 25239 24414 08108 82119 78561 52558 84344 96403 31729 29992 66228 33197 99008 20173 44635 76126 60774 88220 05460 23754 52580 33724 31179 84903 79218 48561 27414 98957 53779 99706 74493 81181 61720 37042 04014 93033 49920 26175 00407 37471 40750 06249 27497 79273 71130 72751 80064 90345 56593 85332 60411 20032 80348 00615 79920 90436 07343 30006 85618 16725 23326 22511 11741 52444 98909 72545 56292 59831 78628 52746 82608 05127 95011 71788 45919 78890 07632 57190 44913 41307 67183 63133 98297 92506 04527 03272 46361 67870 44770 08546 77539 58346 46315 09989 79971 55762 64931 46550 18068 23137 42810 97897 34071 89994 22635 42234 74619 72671 86639 39113 42305 19637 20668 37248 72243 81802 03243 07322 33628 07827 19623 99805 56301 64444 00871

Specs: This table of 1000 random numbers was produced according to the following specifications: Numbers were randomly selected from within the range of 0 to 99999. Duplicate numbers were allowed. This table was generated on 10/19/2021.

Frequently-Asked Questions


Instructions: To find the answer to a frequently-asked question, simply click on the question.

What are random numbers?

Random numbers are sets of digits (i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) arranged in random order. Because they are randomly ordered, no individual digit can be predicted from knowledge of any other digit or group of digits.

What is a random number generator?

A random number generator is a process that produces random numbers. Any random process (e.g., a flip of a coin or the toss of a die) can be used to generate random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator uses a statistical algorithm to produce random numbers.

What is a random number table?

A random number table is a listing of random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces a listing of random numbers, based on the following User specifications:

  • The quantity of random numbers desired.
  • The maximum and minimum values of random numbers in the list.
  • Whether or not duplicate random numbers are permitted.

How "random" is Stat Trek's Random Number Generator?

Although no computer algorithm can produce numbers that are truly random, Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces numbers that are nearly random. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator can be used for most statistical applications (like randomly assigning subjects to treatments in a statistical experiment). However, it should not be used to generate numbers for cryptography.

What are the minimum and maximum values in the Random Number Generator?

The minimum and maximum values set limits on the range of values that might appear in a random number table. The minimum value identifies the smallest number in the range; and the maximum value identifies the largest number. For example, if we set the minimum value equal to 12 and the maximum value equal to 30, the Random Number Generator will produce a table consisting of random arrangements of numbers in the range of 12 to 30.

What does it mean to allow duplicate entries in a random number table?

Stat Trek's Random Number Generator allows Users to permit or prevent the same number from appearing more than once in the random number table. To permit duplicate entries, set the drop-down box labeled "Allow duplicate entries" equal to True. To prevent duplicate entries, change the setting to False.

Essentially, allowing duplicate entries amounts to sampling with replacement; preventing duplicate entries amounts to sampling without replacement.

What is a seed?

The seed is a number that controls whether the Random Number Generator produces a new set of random numbers or repeats a particular sequence of random numbers. If the text box labeled "Seed" is blank, the Random Number Generator will produce a different set of random numbers each time a random number table is created. On the other hand, if a number is entered in the "Seed" text box, the Random Number Generator will produce a set of random numbers based on the value of the Seed. Each time a random number table is created, the Random Number Generator will produce the same set of random numbers, until the Seed value is changed.

Note: The ability of the seed to repeat a random sequence of numbers assumes that other User specifications (i.e., quantity of random numbers, minimum value, maximum value, whether duplicate values are permitted) are constant across replications. The use of a seed is illustrated in Sample Problem 1.

Warning: The seed capability is provided for Users as a short-term convenience. However, it is not a long-term solution. From time to time, Stat Trek may change the underlying random number algorithm to more closely approximate true randomization. A newer algorithm will not reproduce random numbers generated by an older algorithm, even with the same seed. Therefore, the safest way to "save" a random number table is to print it out. The algorithm was last changed on 3/1/2018.

Sample Problems


  1. A university is testing the effectiveness of two different medications. They have 10 volunteers. To conduct the study, researchers randomly assign a number from 1 to 2 to each volunteer. Volunteers who are assigned number 1 get Treatment 1 and volunteers who are assigned number 2 get Treatment 2. To implement this strategy, they input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • They want to assign a number randomly to each of 10 volunteers, so they need 10 entries in the random number table. Therefore, the researchers enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each volunteer will receive one of two treatments, they set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Since some volunteers will receive the same treatment, the researchers allow duplicate random numbers in the random number table. Therefore, they set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • And finally, they set the Seed value equal to 1. (The number 1 is not special. They could have used any positive integer.)

    Then, they hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 10 entries, where each entry is the number 1 or 2. The researchers assign the treatment indicated by the first entry to volunteer number 1, the treatment indicated by the second entry to volunteer number 2, and so on.

    Using this strategy, what treatment did the first volunteer receive? What treatment did the tenth volunteer receive?

    Solution:

    This problem can be solved by recreating the exact Random Number Table used by the researchers. By inputting all of the same entries (especially the same Seed value) that were used originally, we can recreate the Random Number Table used by the researchers. Therefore, we do the following:

    • Enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Set the minimum value equal to 1 and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • Set the Seed value equal to 1.

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. This produces the Random Number Table shown below.

    10 Random Numbers
    2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

    From the table, we can see that the first entry is "2". Therefore, the first volunteer received Treatment 2. And the second entry is "2". Hence, the second volunteer also received Treatment 2. And so on. The tenth volunteer received the tenth number in the list, which is "1". So the tenth volunteer received Treatment 1.
  1. We would like to survey 500 families from a population of 20,000 families. Each family has been assigned a unique number from 1 to 20,000. How can we randomly select 500 families for the survey?

    Solution:

    We input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • We want to select 500 families. Therefore, we enter 500 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each family has been assigned a number from 1 to 20,000, we set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 20,000.
    • Since we only want to survey each family once, we don't want duplicate random numbers in our random number table. Therefore, we set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "False".

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 500 unique random numbers between 1 and 20,000. We will survey the families represented by these numbers - a sample of 500 families randomly selected from the population of 20,000 families.